Prior to May 28, 1830

Before the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and other legislated removals forced many tribes into Indian Territory, many other tribes already called the land that is now Oklahoma home. The Apache, Arapaho, Caddo, Comanche, Kiowa, Osage, and Wichita tribes all lived out their distinct ways of life before removal and before colonization, and they continue to live, work, and celebrate there today.

Irwin, William Edward. Kiowa Camps, photograph, 1894~; The Gateway to Oklahoma History; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.

Learn more about the Apache, Arapaho, Caddo, Comanche, Kiowa, Osage, and Wichita tribes and their histories at the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture.

Learn about these tribes from the tribes themselves at their official websites: Apache, Arapaho, Caddo, Comanche, Kiowa, Osage, and Wichita.

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