• May 28, 1830
  • June 30, 1834
  • December 29, 1835
  • December 29, 1845
  • May 30, 1854
  • May 20, 1862
  • April 22, 1889
  • Indian Removal Act

    The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to to set aside lands west of the Mississippi River for tribes. The law helped set the stage for mass, forced migrations of tribes, as the U.S. government claimed their lands in the North and East...
  • Indian Territory

    The Removal Act of 1830 only addressed the removal, not exact locations or methods to be used.  The Indian Intercourse Act of 1834 gave a location for the Indian lands, “that part of the United States west of the Mississippi, and not within the states of Missouri, Louisiana, or the Territory of Arkansas.” Due to...
  • Treaty of New Echota

    On December 29, 1835, U.S. government officials and about 500 Cherokee Indians claiming to represent their 16,000-member tribe, met at New Echota, Georgia, and signed a treaty. The agreement led to the forced removal of Cherokees from their southeastern homelands to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. The Treaty of New Echota gave the...
  • Western Panhandle region becomes part of U.S. Territory

    The Western Panhandle region became U.S. territory with the annexation of Texas. When the United States annexed Texas in 1845, the future Lone Star State was even larger than it is today, stretching all the way north into modern Wyoming. Texans voted in favor of annexation to the United States in the first election following...
  • No Man’s Land

    When Texas joined the Union as a slave state, it agreed not to extend its sovereignty over any territory north of 36 1/2 parallel. Therefore the northern boundary of the Texas Panhandle only stretched that far north, even though as a republic Texas claimed a strip of land stretching northward into modern Wyoming. The Kansas-Nebraska...
  • Homestead Act

    Photograph above is that of the Mike Decker family home, built in 1898, following the land run, located near Newkirk, Oklahoma. [Digital Prairie collection] Signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862, the Homestead Act encouraged Western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee...
  • Oklahoma Land Run of 1889

    At precisely high noon on April 22, 1889, thousands of would-be settlers make a mad dash into the newly opened Oklahoma Territory to claim cheap land. The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 was the first land rush into the Unassigned Lands. The area that was opened to settlement included all or part of the Canadian,...
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